Sutherlandia frutescens, is a much-respected and long-used
medicinal plant that is also an attractive garden plant, and has
been cultivated in gardens for many years, for its fine form, striking
colour and luminous flowers.
is an attractive small, soft wooded shrublet, 0.5 to 1 m in height.
The leaves are pinnately compound . The leaflets are 4-10 mm long,
grey-green in colour, giving the bush a silvery appearance. They
have a very bitter taste.
The flowers are orange-red, up to 35 mm long, and are carried in
short racemes in the leaf axils at the tips of the branches in spring
to mid-summer (September - December).
The flowers are not typical 'pea' flowers, the wing petals are very
small and are concealed in the calyx, and the standard petal is
much shorter than the keel.
The fruit is a large, bladder-like, papery inflated pod and is
almost transparent. It can be used in dry flower arrangements as
it dries well, maintaining its colour and form.
Sunbirds pollinate the attractive, butterfly-like red flowers. The
lightweight, papery, inflated pods enable the seed to be dispersed
easily by wind. Stock browse the foliage.
Ecologically legumes are well known for fixing nitrogen in the
soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. The bacteria
infect the roots, forming small growths or nodules. Inside the nodules,
atmospheric nitrogen, which the plants cannot use, is converted
to ammonia, which plants can use. The plant supplies sugars for
the bacteria, while the bacteria provide the biologically useful
nitrogen that the plant absorbs.
Sutherlandia frutescens occurs naturally throughout the dry
parts of southern Africa, in Western Cape and up the west coast
as far north as Namibia and into Botswana, and in the western Karoo
to Eastern Cape. It shows remarkable variation within its distribution.
Derivation of name and historical aspects
The genus Sutherlandia is so closely related to Lessertia
and some botanists consider that it should be sunk in to Lessertia.
This species is sometimes called Lessertia frutescens. The
genus Sutherlandia was named after James Sutherland, ?1639-1719,
first Superintendent of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. The genus
Lessertia is named after Jules Paul Benjamin de Lessert,
1773-1847, a French industrialist, banker, amateur botanist and
owner of an important private herbarium used by De Candolle. The
species name frutescens means bushy in Latin.
Sutherlandia frutescens has many common names. It has become
widely known as sutherlandia, The name cancer bush, kankerbos,
comes from its reputation as a cure for cancer. The names balloon-pea,
blaasbossie or blaas-ertjie (meaning bladder-bush
or bladder-pea) all refer to the inflated, bladder-like fruits.
The name klapper (meaning rattle) is a name applied to many
species whose seeds rattle about in the mature, dry pods. The name
hoenderbelletjie is in reference to the bright red flowers
that are suggestive of the wattles (belletjies) of a fowl
(hoender). The names eendjies and gansiekeurtjie
are in reference to the inflated fruits which float on water and
which are used by children as toy ducks (eendjies) and toy
geese (gansies). Keurtjie is an old name applied mainly
to species of Podalyria and occasionally to Sutherlandia
and used as far back as 1680, derived from the Dutch keur
meaning 'the pick of' or 'choice' in reference to their showy flowers.
The Zulu name unwele means 'hair' - alluding to the fact
that the plant stops people 'pulling out their hair' with distress.
The Fabaceae (pea & bean or pod-bearing family) is the second
largest flowering plant family. It contains more than 600 genera
and 12 000 species and is found throughout the world. In southern
Africa this family is represented by 134 genera and more than 1
The genus Sutherlandia, which has since been sunk in Lessertia,
used to contain only 5 species, widespread throughout southern Africa.
The genus Lessertia, which now includes Sutherlandia,
is widely distributed in Africa, consists of ± 60 species,
with ± 50 in southern Africa.
There are other closely related species that are often confused
with Sutherlandia frutescens, these are Sutherlandia montana
the mountain cancer bush, Sutherlandia microphylla commonly
known as bitterblaar or grootgansiesbos, and Sutherlandia
tomentosa, also known as eendjies or rooikeurtjie.
Uses and cultural aspects:
This plant is one of the most talked about in the ethnobotanical
world because it has a strong reputation as a cure for cancer and
now increasingly as an immune booster in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.
Research on its properties is ongoing.
It has long been known, used and respected as a medicinal plant
in southern Africa. The original inhabitants of the Cape, the Khoi
San and Nama people, used it mainly as a decoction for the washing
of wounds and took it internally to bring down fevers. The early
colonists regarded it as giving successful results in the treatment
of chicken pox, stomach problems, and in the treatment of internal
cancers. It is also known to have been used in the treatment of
eye troubles, the eyes being bathed with a decoction of the plant.
It continues to be used to this day as a remedy for the above-mentioned
ailments. It is still used as a wash for wounds, to bring down fevers,
to treat chicken pox, for internal cancers, and farm workers in
the Cape still use it to treat eye troubles. It is also used to
treat colds, 'flu, asthma, TB, bronchitis, rheumatism, rheumatoid
arthritis and osteo-arthritis, liver problems, haemorrhoids, piles,
bladder, uterus & 'women's' complaints, diarrhoea & dysentery,
stomach ailments, heartburn, peptic ulcers, backache, diabetes,
varicose veins and inflammation. It is also used in the treatment
of mental and emotional stress, including irritability, anxiety
and depression and is used as a gentle tranquillizer. It is said
to be a useful bitter tonic and that a little taken before meals
will aid digestion and improve the appetite. It is considered to
be a good general medicine.
There is as yet no scientific support for the numerous claims and
anecdotes that this plant can cure cancer, but there is preliminary
clinical evidence that it has a direct anti-cancer effect in some
cancers and that it acts as an immune stimulant.
Sutherlandia should not be regarded as a miracle cure for cancer,
its real benefits are as a tonic that will assist the body to mobilize
its own resources to cope with the illness. It is known to decrease
anxiety and irritability and to elevate the mood. Cancer patients,
as well as TB and AIDS patients, lose weight and tend to waste away.
Sutherlandia dramatically improves the appetite and wasted patients
start to gain weight. It is also known to improve energy levels
and gives an enhanced sense of well-being. It is hoped that treatment
with sutherlandia will delay the progression of HIV into AIDS, and
even remission of the disease is hoped for.
Growing Sutherlandia frutescens
is fast growing and easy to grow, but short-lived as a garden subject.
It is a tough, hardy plant that does well in full sun and tolerates
all soil types. It occurs both in summer and winter rainfall regions,
and is quite drought tolerant so does not require much watering.
When growing it in containers, make sure that it is well drained
and don't over-water. The plant is also quite pest resistant. Plants
seed themselves readily, so that as the older plants start to look
past their best they can be removed.
It makes interesting temporary filler in the mixed border, rockery
or shrubbery, especially if it is planted in groups or en masse.
It is also a good contrast foliage plant against a green backdrop
and can be used effectively to punctuate a soft landscape planting.
It is also a must for the herb garden. It grows well in containers,
and can be used as a temporary decoration for the patio or courtyard.
Because they are fast and tough, they also work quite well as pioneers
in a new garden, where they give cover and colour while the slower
growing perennials get going.
The cancer bush seeds itself readily, and grows easily from seed.
Sow in autumn or spring in well-drained soil. Germination is improved
if seeds are left to soak for about 4 hours or overnight in water
hot enough for you to put your hand in. We have found that many
members of the pea & bean family are susceptible to pre-emergence
damping off. Using sterile soil and treating the seed with the Apron
(a.i. metalaxyl) effectively combats fungal infection. Keep the
seed trays warm (not hot) and damp but not wet. Germination should
occur in 2 to 3 weeks and seedlings can be transplanted as soon
as they are large enough to handle. Planting the plants close together
in groups of 3 or 5 will give you a fuller, more attractive bush.
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Phakamani M' Afrika Xaba & Alice
Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden